Publications: Forest Utilisation, Products and Trade
The socioeconomic status of the non-timber forest product subsector in Swaziland Published: 2009 Author: Dlamini, C.S. & Geldenhuys, C.J.
A wide spectrum of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) generally has a remarkable contribution to the household economy in rural areas. Most communities make a living either through their domestic or commercial use. The objective of this study was to review the current status of the NTFP sector and further compile an up-to-date list of major use categories of NTFPs. The review of the national study on the NTFP sector indicate an average annual value of the selected NTFPs groups of between US$19.8 million and US$79 million with a median value of US$49.38 million. The most important group from an economic point of view is medicinal plants with an average annual value of US$32.1 million, followed by fuel wood with an estimated annualvalue of US$13.5 million. In the natural accounting study it was revealed that the contribution of natural forests and woodlands in flow benefits, including the highlighted NTFPs, was equivalent to 2.2% of the total GDP, 20% of agriculture’s GDP and 439% of the contribution of forestry reported in the national accounts for 2000. This current study reviewed past national, regional and international studies and developed a new list of 19 NTFP use categories subdivided into direct, indirect and intermediate uses. Subsequently, a matrix of commonly used botanical NTFPs was designed and includes most highly preferred species such as Sclerocarya birrea, Bauhinia galpinii, Berchemia zeyheri, Dichrostachys cinerea and others. However, the study concluded that there is still a profound lack of information on the status and total value of NTFPs in Swaziland and recommended that government, NGOs, the private sector, communities, and other interested and affected parties (including resource users) should work together to conduct research in order to generate, compile and disseminate information on the quantitative and qualitative statistical data on NTFPs, their socioeconomic uses and ecological and environmental valuesDownload: Socioeconomic status.pdf Post date: 19 Sep 2013 - 17:29 GMT Updated date: 19 Sep 2013 - 17:29 GMT
A protocol for community-based forest enterprises: The case of non-timber forest products Published: 2012 Author: Dlamini, C. S.
Determining sustainability harvesting levels for most non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is an evolving science. A monitoring programme that will continually assess the health and vitality of the natural resources base should be implemented. Though there is some information on individual species, ecosystem dynamics are still not well understood, commercialization of natural products makes it imperative to manage proactively through monitoring, harvesting and replanting and tree succession plans. Important steps in sustainable natural products management include the following: Identification and demarcation of the resource base by ecosystem type (forest, pasture, farmland, rock outcrop, and so on) and map of the locations of various ecosystems types; identification of resource supply areas of the preferred products; and estimating the volume based on current harvesting and trade or use. Further, identify potential threats to standing stock of natural resource base. In addition to conducting group meetings to investigate where and how products have been harvested, extracted or collected over the last 3 to 5 years; undertaking resource inventory of standing stock and also conducting user surveys and engaging resource collectors. Ultimately, for business development, the following logical
issues are examined and critically analyzed; enterprise opportunity and location-specific overview of the community forestry subsector, sustainability of supply of forest products, regulatory environment and forest resource users/groups, technology, management and finance, and lastly marketing and sales.
Phytochemical Investigation of Resins from Kenyan Commiphora holtziana Published: 2013 Author: Chiteva R., Yenesew A., Chikamai B. and Wanjohi J.
Commiphora holtziana gum resins when solvent extracted followed by a combination of chromatographic separation techniques on hexane extract of the Wajir sample, led to the isolation and characterization of a new compound, 11–hydroxy-γ-muurolene 1. In addition, two known compounds, (1E)-2-methoxy-8,12-
epoxygermacra-1(10),7,11-triene-6-one 2 and (1E)-3-methoxy-8,12-epoxygermacra-1,7(8),10(15),11-tetraen-6-
one 3 were also characterized. A total of 14 compounds were identified by the comparison of the mass spectra with data available in the GC – MS library. Both dichloromethane and hexane extracts from both Isiolo and Wajir populations showed antibacterial activity. In addition the hexane extract from Wajir population showed antifungal properties. The acetone extract from Wajir population showed antibacterial properties. Activities were observed against Fungi, Gram (+) bacteria and Gram (-) bacteria. Pure compounds did not show any activity.
Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Published: 2013 Author: Chiteva R. and Wairagu N.
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total carbohydrates were obtained by calculation. Results show no major variation in moisture content, amount of ash except in the Kenyan sample (A), which had a high value of 4.03 ± 0.52)%. Vitamin C varied from the three reported sources whereas crude fat was the same in all except 0.40% in sample A. Crude fiber varied and calorific value only reported in A was 3.77 kcal/g. Carbohydrates
varied widely between 12 to 92%. All analyzed minerals varied, but Pb and Cd were absent. From this study, it is evident that the nutritional composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) varies in regards to age and season. However, irrespective of the origin or variety, these fruits are a good natural reservoir of energy whose nutritive components and antioxidants such as vitamin C, can be used as a food supplement.
Fuel-wood energy properties of Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida grown in Baringo District, Kenya Published: 2013 Author: Oduor N. and Githiomi J.
Kenya depends on fuel-wood for cooking and heating in most households. Over 80% of both rural and urban households in the country use fuel wood for cooking. These Prosopis plant species provide excellent fuel wood. These plants were introduced in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya in the early 1970s as a source of woodfuel and also for the rehabilitation of degraded lands. Prosopis is a prolific seeder and has invasiveness behaviour that results in a number of social, ecological and economic concerns to the local communities, and challenges to development partners. Now with the Kenyan Forest Policy 2005 which proposes strategies and actions to enhance sustainable and efficient production of wood-fuel, Prosopis species is a suitable candidate. The Kenya Forest Service is now issuing permits allowing charcoal burning of Prosopis species in an effort to manage and curb uncontrolled spread. There is a national ban on charcoal making from unsustainable wood sources which include the woodlands and natural forest reserves. The aim of this project was to determine the energy values from Prosopis fuel-wood. The moisture content, volatile matter, ash content, carbon content and calorific values were determined from Prosopis fuel-wood plants. The calorific values for Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis pallida wood are 4.952 and 4.862 Kcal respectively. The calorific values for P. juliflora and P. pallida charcoal are 7.854 and 7.797 Kcal, respectively.Download: Fuel-wood energy properties of prosopis spp in baringo district Oduor and Githiomi.pdf Post date: 18 Jun 2013 - 08:13 GMT Updated date: 18 Jun 2013 - 08:13 GMT
Dimensional Stability of Particle Board and Radiata Pine Wood (Pinus radiata D. Don) Treated with Different Resins Published: 2013 Author: Oduor N., Vinden P. and Kho P.
Particleboard and solid wood stakes were treated with either an isocyanate or phenol formaldehyde resin and exposed in soil beds comprising three different soil types and two moisture contents. The treatments resulted in a marked improvement in the dimensional stability of particleboard but had no effect on solid wood. Higher moisture uptakes in stakes exposed in sandy soils indicated that the technique used for measuring soil water holding capacity needs to be reviewed.Download: Dimensional Stability of Particle Board and Radiata Pine Wood (Pinus radiata D..pdf Post date: 6 Jun 2013 - 16:00 GMT Updated date: 6 Jun 2013 - 16:02 GMT
Evaluating Mukau wood Published: 2013 Author: Nellie Oduor
Melia volkensii commonly known as Mukau is an well known indigenous tree species in the plant family Meliaceae growing naturally in the semiarid zones of Ethiopia, Somalia, Tanzania and Kenya.Melia volkensii mechanical properties are compared with mahogany (Khaya species), teak (Tectona grandis) and mvule (Milicia excelsa)Download: Evaluating mukau wood.pdf Post date: 6 Jun 2013 - 15:46 GMT Updated date: 6 Jun 2013 - 16:02 GMT
Analysis of Heartwood –Sapwood Demarcation Methods and Variation of Sapwood and Heartwood within and Between 15 Year Old Plantation Grown Eucalyptus Regnans Published: 2012 Author: Githiomi J, K. and Douglas E.
This study was carried out using 15-year old Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell trees from three seedlots in a progeny trial in Norbethong, Victoria in Australia. Colour, stain and light table methods were used to demarcate the boundary between the sapwood and heartwood on the discs cross sectional surface. The main objective of this study was to examine the variation within and between tree in heartwood and sapwood in plantation grown Eucalyptus regnans material and also to compare the three techniques used in demarcating the boundary between sapwood and heartwood. Wood discs were removed from the base, breast height, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the total tree height. Measurements were made on cross sectional surfaces of the discs to determine the sapwood width and heartwood percentage. The results showed that there was no significant difference in heartwood-sapwood demarcation methods using natural colour and stain. However sapwood-heartwood demarcation method using light table method had significant difference with both colour and stain methods with P = 0.000. The mean sapwood and heartwood width varied significantly between trees and along the height. The lowest mean sapwood width of 21.0 mm was found at breast height which increased with height to 33.9mm at 80% tree height it also increased from breast height to 29.9mm at the base of the tree. The largest heart wood percentage of 69.51% was found at breast height and decreased with height to zero at 80% height and it also decreased from breast height to 65.75% at the base. A very high correlation was found between the heartwood diameter and disc diameter.Download: Anaylysis of heart and sapwood Eucalyptus regnans.pdf Post date: 18 May 2013 - 21:14 GMT Updated date: 18 May 2013 - 21:17 GMT
Strategies for Sustainable Wood fuel Production in Kenya Published: 2012 Author: Githiomi J.K and Oduor N.
Wood energy provides 70% of Kenya’s national energy needs and it is expected to continue as the country’s main source of energy for the foreseeable future. Wood is the standard cooking fuel for the majority of Kenyan households and also an important energy source for small-scale rural industries. Past studies on supply demand balance of woodfuel have shown a deficit. To address this deficit there is need for a comprehensive wood energy plan with implementation strategies which ensure its sustainable production. This paper outlines some of the strategies that need to be put in place for a sustainable woodfuel production. The strategies are both supply and demand oriented which are aimed at either increasing the supply or reducing the demand. The supply strategies include; enhancing on-farm tree planting, efficient management of rangelands and woodlands, development of fuelwood plantations by Kenya Forest Service. The demand oriented strategies include ; reducing demand through promotion of more efficient cooking stoves and charcoal conversion kilns, use of alternative sources of energy other than wood. Other strategies include formulation of woodfuel policies that enhances decentralized sustainable wood energy planning at all levels. The later can only be achieved if the wood energy institutional framework is strengthened and facilitated to collect wood energy data to be used in national energy planning alongside the conventional fuels that are currently given more emphasis. The decentralized wood energy planning is important as the strategies to be used for sustainable woodfuel production may vary from one region to the otherDownload: Strategies for sustaibale wood fuel production in Kenya.pdf Post date: 18 May 2013 - 21:06 GMT Updated date: 18 May 2013 - 21:17 GMT
NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF Sclerocarya birrea (Amarula) FRUIT FROM KENYA Published: 2013 Author: Wairagu, N. W., Kiptoo J. and Githiomi, J. K.
The aim of this study was to carry out nutrient content of Sclerocarya birrea (Amarula) fruits as one of the
Kenyan drylands indigenous fruits with a high potential. Mature fruit samples were collected from the field in
Mbeere in Eastern part of Kenya and then taken to the Forest Products laboratories for analysis. Edible portions
were analysed for the nutritional composition. The analysis carried out included energy, moisture, ascorbic acid,
proximate and minerals (i.e. Ca, Mg, K, Cu, P, Fe and Zn). Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS)
was used for elemental analysis, Ultra Violet-visible spectrophotometer (UV/VIS.) for phosphorous analysis,
Kjedahl method for crude protein, bomb calorimeter for internal energy and soxhlet method of analysis for crude
fat while various classical methods of analysis were employed for the other parameters. The results of analysis
indicated that the kernel was rich in fat (57.36 ± 0.95%), energy (30.36 ± 0.04kj/g), protein (30.34 ± 0.36%),
potassium (486.64 ± 2.6mg/100g), phosphorous (160.74 ± 2.6mg/100g) and calcium (449 ±18.59mg/100g) while
pulp had significantly high values of ascorbic acid (190 ± 0.81mg/100g), Potassium (K) (3220.3 6± 4.32mg/100g),
Phosphorous (P) 145.634 ± mg/100g), Calcium (Ca) (688.488 ± 20.74mg/100g). However iron (Fe) (2.792 ± 0.26
mg/100g), Magnesium (Mg) (155.82±1.044mg/100g), zinc (2.33 ± 0.03mg/100g) and copper (0.32 ±
0.075mg/100g) were present in low quantities.